Volume 9, Number 3 (12-2016)                   ijhe 2016, 9(3): 309-318 | Back to browse issues page


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Khajeamiri A, Zare Jeddi M, Ahmadkhaniha R, Rastkari N. Carcinogenic and Non-carcinogenic Risk Assessment of DDT and its Metabolites Residuals in Pasteurized Milk in General Population of Tehran. ijhe. 2016; 9 (3) :309-318
URL: http://ijhe.tums.ac.ir/article-1-5813-en.html

1- Police University, Tehran, Iran
2- Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3- Department of Human Ecology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4- Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran , nr_rastkari@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (1788 Views)

Background and Objective: Organochlorine pesticides are among the endocrine disrupting chemicals believed to produce a wide variety of adverse health outcomes such as cancers. Generally, fatty foods of animal origin are the major sources of human exposure to lipophilic contaminants such as DDTs and their metabolites. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate exposure of general population to DDTs via dietary milk consumption in Iran, and to assess the respective potential risks to health of people in terms of carcinogenic and none-carcinogenic effects.

Materials and Methods: The DDT residue levels were determined by GC/MS analysis in 60 milk samples of full fat pasteurized commercial types (3% fat). The assessment of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks was calculated through international standard methods.

Results: In all of the milk samples, DDT and its metabolites were detected in the range of 0.0015 to 0.28 µg/L with the mean of 0.05±0.03, 0.15±0.08, 0.09±0.05, 0.05±0.02 µg/L for o, p-DDE, p,p-DDE, p,p-DDT, p,p-DDD, respectively. The calculated estimated daily intake (0.00006-0.0002 mg/kg/day) for all categories and all compounds were lower than the Reference doses (RfDs). Consequently, the hazard quotients calculated in these groups for DDTs were less than 1. Hazard index obtained for all compounds in full fat pasteurized milk based on maximum DDT residue concentrations was higher than unity confirming health risk. From the carcinogenic point of view, there is no risk and it was within the acceptable threshold of EPA.

Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the general population are exposing to DDT and its metabolites constantly. Therefore, it is recommended to biomonitoring and measuring these chemicals in all age groups especially in children. 

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Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2016/11/27 | Accepted: 2016/12/5 | Published: 2016/12/13

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