Volume 9, Number 3 (12-2016)                   ijhe 2016, 9(3): 347-358 | Back to browse issues page


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Mesdaghinia A, Nasseri S, Hadi M. Assessment of Carcinogenic Risk and Non-Carcinogenic Hazard Quotient of Chromium in Bottled Drinking Waters in Iran. ijhe. 2016; 9 (3) :347-358
URL: http://ijhe.tums.ac.ir/article-1-5618-en.html

1- Center for Water Quality Research (CWQR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, AND Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2- Assistant Professor, Center for Water Quality Research (CWQR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran , hadi_rfm@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (1625 Views)

Background and Objective: Exposure to chemicals such as heavy metals can be occurred through the route of drinking water consumption. Chromium is an important pollutant because of its role in the appearance of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health effects in humans. In this study, we studied the carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic hazard of chromium due to the consumption of bottled drinking water distributed throughout Iran.

Materials and Methods: The Hazard Quotient (HQ) and Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) indices were calculated. Monte-Carlo simulation technique was adopted for simulating  uncertainty in the estimation of HQ and ELCR based on the input variables namely the concentration of pollutant, per capita water consumption, body weight, reference dose, biological availability, and source contribution factors. 

Results: The average concentration of chromium in bottled waters determined was 4.79 ± 2.32 µg/L. The amounts of HQ and ELCR  for the age groups of  lower than  2, 2 to 6, 6 to 16 and over 16 years old were 0.000354, 0.00292, 0.00236, 0.00147 and 4.04×10-11, 5.99×10-10, 8.61×10-10 and 2.34×10-9, respectively.

Conclusion: In regard to the concentration of chromium in bottled waters in Iran, the incidence probability and the possibility of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects by this pollutant due to the consumption of bottled water are considerably low and there is no health concern for any age groups.

Full-Text [PDF 1145 kb]   (756 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: WATER
Received: 2015/12/21 | Accepted: 2016/11/15 | Published: 2016/12/20

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